Organisational Culture and values
Culture is the glue of the social fabric. The main role of the culture is to enable people to cooperate effectively and flexibly at the large scale. It exists in the form of institutions (formal and unformal) that constitute the rules of the game inside and outside group. Having culture, people know what to expect form each other, structure their interaction and thus succeed to cooperate more effectively and cheaply. Effectively because sometimes billions of people combine their efforts and strive to achieve common goal and cheaply because it happens with minimum or less transactional costs.
According to Multi level selection theory, people compete as individuals inside the group (individual level) and as competition between groups (group level). Culture is what distinguish one group from another and thus gives rise to existence of the group at all. If there is no culture, there is no glue and there is no group. And more importantly, “if all other is equal”, it is culture that will determine which group will outcompete others in evolutionary game for survival and reproduction.
Today, in modern affluent societies people are able to choose organizations with which they want to cooperate. That is why it so Important for organizations to define and embed culture that is clearly defined and presumably winning.
And just because Culture is so important, there was vast research and practice work on it. We explored most prominent and commercially successful Organizational culture models and found out that each one has its own distinguishing perspective toward this complex phenomenon. Here we will mention just six of them, providing very briefly what unique contribution this model brings.
Hofstede – Deriving by vast and longitudinal study National and Regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior of organizations and identified five dimensions of culture
O'Reilly, Chatman, and Caldwell – With main belief that cultures can be distinguished by Values that are reinforced within organizations. It means that Organizational culture and Individual personality might be depicted with the same taxonomical units.
Daniel Denison – proposing Leadership model using the same core structure as organizational culture model and connected with personality characteristics by Hogan assessment based Leadership profile.
Edgar Schein – Claims that there are two main reasons why cultures develop in organizations - External adaptation and Internal integration and definition of three levels at which culture exists: Artifacts, Espoused values and Basic underlying assumptions.
Gerry Johnson – Depicting culture by seven elements to assess and influence: The paradigm, Control systems, Organizational structures, Power structures, Symbols, Rituals and routines and Stories and myths.
Kim Cameron and Robert Quinn– Defining Competing Values Framework by which organizational cultures might be divided into four categories: Clan, Adhocracy, Market and Hierarchy, each of which is positively corelated with different outcomes.
According to the project objectives and organization’s culture study history, we can adopt Organizational culture model that fits best to your business case.
Culture is intersubjective reality phenomenon and it exists only, when and if enough people believe in its existence. And there is a vicious loop here. Once a particular culture is established among social group members, individual member usually starts to believe that this culture is inevitable law and adapt his/her behaviour to meet culture’s expectations in terms to succeed better. But that is exactly these believes and behaviours that reinforce and cement that same culture that breed them. This vicious loop is what makes cultural changes so difficult and leadership so important. But we have a model proved to be successful for Organizational culture changes:
Organizational Culture Integration Roadmap™
WHAT WE OFFER
Transforming Your Organization
By Center for creative leadership
Contrary to conventional wisdom, cultures can be transformed. But organizational culture change is not for the faint of heart or the quick-change artist. Serious change demands serious people. Are you up for it?
The Culture Clash
By Hogan Assessment
Leaders’ personalities shape the culture of the organization, team, or business unit. Followers identify and interpret the values implicit in the behavior and decisions of their leader. Eventually, organizational processes, norms, and culture come to resemble the values of the leader.
Lead Your Culture
By Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Today, culture is understood to have strategic and practical implications for every organization. When culture and strategy are aligned, organizations achieve goals, amplify successes, and have greater impact.